nRBC is being developed as a blood substitute to reduce the incidence of poor clinical outcomes from the transfusion of "aged" or "old" RBC.

Based on currently available clinical data, massive blood transfusion and/or transfusion of older stored red blood cells are associated with increased risk of death and multiple organ failure.   When used as a safe alternative to blood transfusion, nRBC avoids the toxicities of older stored RBC.  It has a high therapeutic index based on four key functions: i) oxygen delivery capability, ii) superior plasma volume expansion, iii) prevention and/or reduction of oxidative stress, and iv) maintenance and restoration of vascular nitric oxide.  The development and use of nRBC as a blood substitute may lead to reduced incidence of poor clinical outcomes seen in some cases of transfusion with banked blood.